• Pathphysiology of Disease (Appleton and Lange)
• Davidson’s Principles and Practise of Medicine
• Concise Pathology
• Clinical examination (Nicholas J Talley , Simon O’Connor)
• Pathphysiology of Disease (Appleton and Lange)
• Davidson’s Principles and Practise of Medicine
• Concise Pathology
• Clinical examination (Nicholas J Talley , Simon O’Connor)
Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that results from too much growth hormone (GH) in the body. The pituitary, a small gland in the brain, makes GH. In acromegaly, the pituitary produces excessive amounts of GH. Usually the excess GH comes from benign, or noncancerous, tumors on the pituitary. These benign tumors are called adenomas.
Acromegaly is most often diagnosed in middle-aged adults, although symptoms can appear at any age. If not treated, acromegaly can result in serious illness and premature death. Acromegaly is treatable in most patients, but because of its slow and often “sneaky” onset, it often is not diagnosed early or correctly. The most serious health consequences of acromegaly are type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and arthritis. Patients with acromegaly are also at increased risk for colon polyps, which may develop into colon cancer if not removed.
When GH-producing tumors occur in childhood, the disease that results is called gigantism rather than acromegaly. A child’s height is determined by the length of the so-called long bones in the legs. In response to GH, these bones grow in length at the growth plates—areas near either end of the bone. Growth plates fuse after puberty, so the excessive GH production in adults does not result in increased height. However, prolonged exposure to excess GH before the growth plates fuse causes increased growth of the long bones and thus increased height. Pediatricians may become concerned about this possibility if a child’s growth rate suddenly and markedly increases beyond what would be predicted by previous growth and how tall the child’s parents are.
Normally, cortisol levels increase through a chain reaction of hormones. The brain's hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates the pituitary gland to make adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Then, ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol.
Cortisol affects almost every area of the body and is particularly important in regulating blood pressure and metabolism.
But if your body makes too much cortisol—or if you take certain medications that act like cortisol—you may develop a variety of symptoms. Cushing's syndrome may cause weight gain, skin changes, and fatigue and lead to such serious conditions as diabetes, high blood pressure, depression, and osteoporosis. If untreated, Cushing's syndrome can cause death.
another pictures of cushing disease:1. Hairy face(hirsutism)
A lot of information about is lasik surgery is available especially since the time lasik has moved on net. It is one treatment that inculcated a revolution to the surgical world of eyes. According to studies, every 4th person in this world wears specs or bears some imperfections of visions. From toddler to an adult, all are bearing some or the other problems regarding eyes. Lasik, commonly known as laser, are the electronic waves that help in vision correctness of a person. With the emergence of lasik on popular scales through out the world, there are tonnes of lasik eye institutes has been opened. One can find another laser center on every other side of the roads.
With the emergence of so many lasik eye centers, like lasik Los Angeles and Lasik Chicago, the prices of lasik surgery have been competitive. It provides the candidates, a benefit of a choice, choosing a best deal. Lasik prices differ largely from one eye center to the other and so does the facilities. Lasik prices are always determined on the treatment of one eye. The prices quoted are doubled with the treatment of both the eyes. There are additional prices for each of the extra bit of facility available. As big the name of the surgeon, bigger the prices would be, that's the criteria for pricing the surgery.
Extra charges may be added to the cost in the name of new technologies, which may include custom wavefront lasik. Custom wavefront refers to the analysis for extra precise corrections. Adding to this, one may be charged extra for Intralase procedure, in which a laser is used to create a flap in front of in front of the eye rather a bladed instrument.
However, the advertisements costs are also paid by the patients and eye care institutes vacuums big bucks out of their pockets. After all, the institutes have to get all the cost covered from the patients only. Large scale advertisement of the eye care institutes adds on to the costs of the surgery offered. To cut short, a patient has to pay a minimum of 1000$ per eye for the lasik surgery. This may, in turn, vary from one center to another that may range from 1000$ to 1500$.
However, few precautions must be taken to evaluate the cost. Non-refundable deposits must be avoided and negotiation is the right of the candidate. Being clear about the requirements is the best way to choose the best deal.
LasikAide is an online information hub for those who have minor defect in vision and want liberty from lenses and glasses. Lasik Vision Correction is a surgical procedure intended to reduce a person's dependency on glasses or contact lenses. Know more about Lasik Surgery Cost.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Arvind_Singh
In the last decade there have been advancements in the medical field of vision corrective surgery, also known as LASIK laser eye surgery.
Upon discovery of refractive errors within the cornea these can be corrected with the use of lasers in LASIK surgery.The laser is used for reshaping & changing the focus of the cornea, this makes lasik surgery a relatively simple 2 step procedure:
Firstly a very thin layer of tissue (or flap) is created on the outside surface of the eye or cornea, this flap aids in the recovery & provides more comfort after the surgery.
The surgeon then proceeds to open the flap on the inner cornea & begins to correct the vision, the flap of tissue is then folded back into placed and secured with very small stitches.
The word LASIK stands for Laser-Assisted In Sutu Keratomieusis which is a process that will reshape the cornea to refract light better in the lens of the eye. Although LASIK surgery isn't perfect it is a very safe surgical procedure.
Major improvements have been made by the government with regards to the regulations of LASERS which can be used when performing LASIK surgery. If you are considering having LASER EYE SURGERY it would be recommended to research the types of lasers used during the eye surgery.
As technology progresses the costs of lasik eye surgery continues to drop, this makes it a possibility for more people to enjoy the benefits of surgery. Some surgeries are also referred to as BLADELESS or CUSTOM LASIK, these types of eye surgery are more efficient and are more tailored to the individuals needs.
While this article was still in the planning stage, I came across a published interview with Dr. Charles E. Dutchess, medical director of an Eastern research laboratory, and a scientist long interested in proper nutrition as the only way to attain a healthy, long life. His 'six general rules' parallel so closely the health teachings to which I have devoted my life that I was elated to find a medical scientist speaking out firmly on the subject of 'eating to stay young.' If you are already forty or over, Dr. Dutchess was quoted as saying, it is even more important to protect your body mechanism against the wear and tear of age. And at fifty and sixty, and beyond, the six rules become still more vital. The rules, in brief, with which Dr. Dutchess (as well as all nutritional scientists) earnestly seeks to acquaint the public call for 'plenty of lean meat, eggs, milk, vitamins and essential minerals, obtained from a broad selection of meats, fruits and vegetables.' Let's take these six general rules-commandments I have called them-one by one, in detail, as they pertain to your goal of attaining a long, youthful, enjoyable life.
First Secret: High Grade Proteins in Abundance
The protein story has been developed rather fully for you in the preceding chapters, so there is no need to repeat at length the fact that protein is essential for feeding, repairing and rebuilding your muscles, nerves, tissues, glands and vital organs. In short, your body is made of protein and needs liberal quantities of protein foods to keep it operating without serious breakdowns (disease). In case of illness or convalescence, protein is the re-builder of your health. It hastens the healing of severe burns or fractures; it builds up bodily resistance by increasing the germ-killing power of the blood; it supplies the lasting energy so essential to the body's recuperative powers in fighting disease. Life insurance companies have an unsentimental, dollars-and-cents interest in keeping you well and alive for a long time. For that reason they issue series of pamphlets and booklets loaded with sane advice on how to avoid illness and early death. I quote from one of these pamphlets directed at the forty-and-over group: 'An ample, nutritious diet is as important to adults as to growing children. Learn to like and to choose foods that are good for you. Well-balanced meals of vegetables, meats and fresh fruits are health-building meals. The impression that people in the older ages should avoid eating meat is entirely erroneous. In fact, some diseases are due to lack of protein which is contained in such foods as meat, eggs, milk and cheese.' The pamphlet then goes on to say that 'older people die (aside from accidents and senility) only from blood disorders, cancer, circulatory disorders (heart disease, kidney disease or stroke) or infections.
Let's see what nutritional science has been doing to fight these 'disease enemies of your youth.' First, we'll take blood disorders. One of the most common of these in persons past forty is anemia. The paleness which has come to be associated with growing older is often nothing except a visible symptom of nutritional anemia. There's no reason why a person shouldn't possess a healthy, glowing complexion in later years, provided his blood is rich with red coloring matter. But healthy blood cannot be formed without protein any more than it can be maintained without the minerals iron and copper. Hemoglobin, the red coloring matter in the blood, contains no less than 14 different amino acids (proteins combined in as many as 576 different groupings). You can't build good red blood on tea and toast. Because nutritional anemia is so widespread among all sugar-and-starch eaters, but more particularly in those persons past forty, I want to dwell a moment on this blood disorder which, in itself, does not kill, but which paves the way for more serious diseases. And I might add, as an aside right here, that although anemia may not kill you, it certainly does murder your youthfulness, for without pep and enthusiasm you can neither look nor feel young. And who can remain youthful while staggering under the growing burden of anemia fatigue? Anemia at any age, and particularly after forty, cannot be shrugged off as 'not serious,' for anemia in middle life is an ailment that can shorten your years of useful, vigorous living. And certainly the mind of a person suffering from nutritional anemia is not equipped to cope with the bewildering personal adjustments that often must be faced, and accepted, after the fourth decade. If you suspect that you may be anemic, go at once to a reliable laboratory and have a blood count taken.
Here are a few of the more common symptoms of anemia: A gradually increasing fatigue and loss of vigor; pale, greenish, sallow skin, turning to pasty white (especially the ear lobes) as the disorder progresses; dull-looking eyes with a pronounced blue-white cast to the whites; dry, luster less hair; brittle, flattened, indented fingernails and toenails; a tender, burning, slick, beefy-red tongue, and sore mouth; dizziness; shortness of breath; and palpitation of the heart (brought on because the blood hasn't enough oxygen-carrying hemoglobin to properly nourish the heart muscle). Let me point out that unless anemia is checked as rapidly as possible, your heart ultimately will be damaged. If a blood count reveals that your blood contains too few red cells and has a low percentage of hemoglobin (that is, it is not red enough), then you should act at once to restore your blood to normal. How? By immediately converting to high-protein meals (those containing lean meat, liver, kidney, heart, dark meat of poultry, oysters, eggs, cheese, milk and seed cereals like millet, sunflower and sesame seeds); by eating generously of iron-rich apricots, molasses (not necessarily the bad-tasting blackstrap variety, since pure cane and sorghum syrups are also rich in iron), prunes, raisins, whole grains, beets, parsley, radishes, citrus fruits and pineapple, to mention but a few of the foods with the highest iron content. As a safety measure, your doctor will probably also prescribe a mineral supplement containing organic iron to rebuild your blood to normal as quickly as possible.
Did you know that you could slow down aging by doing simple exercise? The ideal anti-aging exercises should address to 10 areas in your health. These exercises will help keep you fit, healthy and looking young without overtaxing your body.
1. Metabolic Rate
As you age, your metabolic rate slows down. This metabolic rate is responsible for how our body processes nutrients including fats and calories. The higher the rate, the more efficient we can burn fat and metabolize calories. A regular routine such as walking 20 minutes a day will dramatically boost your metabolism and burn extra fat in the body.
2. Muscle Mass
In addition to metabolic rate as you age you also lose muscle. Muscles are often associated with youth and vitality. The older you are, the more muscle you try to keep. You can achieve this by exercising with weights. Repeat each weight exercise 10 to 20 times. You only need to work each body part once a week to see significant difference.
If you want to build up muscle faster, your diet should include more proteins such as those found in lean red meat. It increases production of growth hormones, which prompt your body to make more muscle and testosterone.
3. Bone Density
A natural aging process is the loss of bone density. Simple weight-bearing exercise such as stair stepping, mountain hiking, and weight training can help to retain bone mass and reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
4. Growth Factor
If you are like many people, you may have experienced doing a normal activity such as climbing a couple flights of stair to find that you are out of shape and that your legs ache.
Your body may be reacting to a need of more muscle mass. These muscles are built by growth hormones that are released in the body from exercise. As you exercise, your heart is pumping more blood to distributing these growth hormones. That is what is called a growth factor. It is the potential for building muscle mass in the body through regular exercise. In order to keep a high growth factor, you should include exercises that are short and intense.
5. Lung Volume
Exercises that require you to use your lungs at their full capacity are recommended in your regular exercise regimen. That does not mean long intense cardiovascular workouts. These type exercises can actually burn off your needed muscle.
Pushing your car for 10 feet distance is actually a good workout for your lungs. Breathing exercises such as the Chinese breathing exercise Qigong is extremely good for your lungs. It boosts your lungs capacity to absorb oxygen, which also improves blood circulation and oxygenates tissues to help build muscle and bone.
6. Fat Gain
Never do long cardiovascular workouts to burn fat. It does help to increase metabolism and burn extra fat. Too much can have the affect of burning off muscle you are trying to build. Try to balance your workout with strength promoting exercises with shorter cardiovascular exercises.
Training for strength is different from training for muscle mass. For strength, you exercise for shorter duration, and usually do not do more than five repetitions. For muscle mass, you do a lesser weight with more repetitions.
Regular stretching exercises will keep your body limber as you age. Yoga and some other martial arts often teach excellent stretching exercises. Do flexibility exercises every morning and evening to keep your joints flexibly and healthy.
9. Heart Fitness
10 to 20 minutes of strenuous cardiovascular exercise can build up your cardiac reserve capacity. Cycling, swimming, and stair stepping are much better cardiovascular exercises than jogging. However, you need to start slow and build up your endurance and stamina.
10. Neuromuscular Coordination
Always exercise to improve the connection of your brain with your body. This usually deteriorates as you age. Exercises such as martial arts, and Yoga help to reduce this tendency.
A Good Night's Sleep
A person who has puffy and raccoon eyes, which can be caused by sleep deprivation, will look old, no matter what his or her age is. Not having ample sleep can also make your face sag and your skin dull and sallow. For younger looking skin and face, make sure that you have an uninterrupted sleep of at least eight hours.
Focus On The Eyes
Beautiful looking eyes are important in making you look at least a decade younger. How do you make your eyes beautiful? First, do not over pluck your eyebrows. As soon as you reach the age of 30, you need to go easy on the plucking because there is a big chance that they won't grow back. Furthermore, thin and overly arched brows will make you look stern and old, much like the stepmothers in the fairy tales you know.
As you grow older, your eyelids will start to sag. One way to look younger is by curling your eyelashes and putting some mascara. This will make your eye pop and open, making you look more youthful. Lastly, do not forget to use concealer to hide dark circles and eye creams to make the skin surrounding your eyes more elastic.
What's On Your Lips?
When you are in your twenties, you can put whatever color of lipstick you like - pink, violet, black, brown and red. As you grow older, however, you need to look for shades that will flatter you and make your lips more firm and full. Stay away from brown and matte lipsticks because your lips will look drier and the lines on your mouth will be more pronounced. Be sure to use lipsticks that have gloss or moisturizer for a more gorgeous and irresistible lips.
Hair As A Crowning Glory
When you reach a certain age, having long hair is no longer flattering because your hair starts to thin and gray. Most women in their 60's are better off with a short or mid-length hairstyle. You may also try getting some bangs, so the wrinkles on your forehead will be covered. Moreover, this is the best time to color or put some highlights on your hair.
Choose Creamy Make Up
As you grow older, the ability of your body to hydrate and moisturize your skin starts to falter. As a result, most menopausal women have dry lined face and sagging skin. In order to compensate for the dryness, it is wise to use creamy make up -- blush, eye shadows, concealers, and foundations. Powdered make up makes your wrinkle and lines more visible.
Flash Those Pearly Whites
Wine, coffee, tea and even smoking can stain your teeth and can instantly make you look older. Be sure to pay attention to your dental health and use safe whitening products for your teeth. Besides, having pearly whites will make you feel more confident to smile a lot.
Mind Your Posture
To look and feel sexier and taller, all you have to do is to stand or sit up straight. Having a good posture can actually help you look thinner and more confident.
Hydrate And Moisturize
You need to accept the fact that you need all the help you can get in order to maintain soft and supple skin on your face, neck and body. To prevent the development of age spots, wrinkles, and other signs of aging, you need products that will help moisturize and hydrate your skin, and avert the aging process. Rejuvinol is one face cream that is known to reverse the signs of aging. For more information about this product, visit www.Rejuvinol.com.
All of us try new and different things to try and improve the looks of our skin and our overall appearance and different things work better for different people, that is for certain. Finding out what works best for you is very, very important and the only way to really do that is to try a few things out, to see what you think of the results. Our skin begins to lose its elasticity as we grow older and aging can also speed up due to the way that we live our lives and our surroundings. This is why it is so very important for everyone to understand just how serious the results can be if you are too hard on your body and do not take good enough care of it. When you are younger you should begin to do things and try new things to help benefit all aspects of your overall health and wellness. Something popular now days is this drink called green tea and it actually tastes really, really good, for those of you who have not yet tried it. The amazing thing about drinking green tea is that there are an unbelievable amount of wonderful benefits from it, including the fact that it helps to prevent wrinkles and can help in getting rid of some of the wrinkles or fine lines that you are already having to deal with.
It is not that expensive and can be purchased in most grocery stores or convenient stores and the fact that it taste good sure does help. Some of the great benefits from drinking green tea regularly are things such as, improved skin, reduction of wrinkles, reduction of bad cholesterol. It has been known to reduce cancerous cells and even remission in some cancer patients. It can also actually help to prevent certain types of cancers from taking over your body, which is an enormous and excellent benefit that we should all take note of. Green tea, when consumed several times each day, can also help people that are suffering from different types of arthritis pain because it can help to reduce some of the swelling or inflammation, which causes a great deal of that kind of pain. It can also help to boost your immune system, which will prevent certain illnesses and help to keep you more healthy in the long run. The benefits from drinking green tea are enormous and the fact that it also helps with fighting the free radicals throughout your body is just terrific.
This basically means that you could live a longer, healthier life and those wrinkles that you were so worried about, well, they can disappear and help to prevent any new ones from arriving, which is just fabulous! Do some more research on the great benefits from drinking green tea and even if you do not love the flavor of it, because of it being so wonderful for you, surely you could stand the taste and probably even get used to it, but at least give it a try!